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Ano Internacional da Biodiversidade - Numismática e Simbolismo (Ein Krona da Islandia de 1981)

As moedas de uma coroa (Ein Krona) da Islandia, como a de 1981, têm cunhado no verso o Bacalhau (Gadus morhua).
Bacalhau é o nome comum para os peixes do género Gadus, pertencente à família Gadidae. A origem do vocábulo designativo ainda é pouco clara. Talvez assente nas formas bascas bakailaoa ou nas formas franceses cab(e)liau ou cabillaud, ou possivelmente tem origem holandesa: kabeljauw.
De entre as várias espécies de peixes comercializados como bacalhau destacam-se duas: a Gadus morhua, COD ou bacalhau verdadeiro, que habita as águas frias do Oceano Atlântico, nas regiões do Canadá e do Mar da Noruega e a Gadus macrocephalus que habita o Oceano Pacífico na região do Alaska.
Outros peixes salgados e secos também são comercializados com o nome genérico de bacalhau como o Gadus virens ou Pollachius virens (Saithe), o Molva molva (Ling) e o Brosmius brosme (Zarbo). Já em Moçambique e na Guiné-Bissau, chama-se bacalhau ao Rachycentron canadum (Beijupirá), uma espécie de peixe da ordem Perciformes.
Actualmente, a espécie Gadus morhua encontra-se na lista das espécies vulneráveis em risco de extinção, incluído em 2000, pelo WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), na lista de espécies ameaçadas. Um relatório publicado por essa instituição informou que a captura de bacalhau diminuíu em 70 por cento nos últimos 30 anos, devido à dificuldade de encontrá-lo nos oceanos, alertando que se essa tendência se mantiver, os stokes mundiais de bacalhau poderão desaparecer dentro de 15 anos.


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